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中小学英语新课程标准(英文版)

2019-10-08来源:盛大书画网

New English Curriculum for Chinese Primary Schools and Junior/Senior Middle Schools

Experimental Version drafted by the Education Ministry of the PRC

Part 1: Introduction

With the advent of the information age and the global economy, English has become increasingly important. English is the dominant carrier of information and the most widely spoken language in the world. Many countries have made English a cornerstone of quality education when developing strategies for basic education.

 

Since Chinas reform and opening, the scale of its English education has continually grown, attended by significant achievements in teaching and learning. However, English education in its current form is failing to meet the needs of contemporary social and economic development.

 

The current round of reforms to the English curriculum aim to end the following practices:

Over-emphasizing the transmission and explanation of knowledge about grammar and vocabulary

Neglecting to develop students ability to use language for real

 

In their place, the reforms aim to establish a curriculum that:

Develops students comprehensive language competence

Motivates students, is relevant to their life experiences and cognitive level

Promotes task-based teaching methods

Involves students in experiential, practical, participatory and cooperative learning

Develops students positive attitudes, thinking skills, practical abilities, cultural awareness and autonomy through the language learning process

1. The Nature of the New Curriculum

The new English curriculum strives to accomplish far more than just help students learn English. At one level learning English should involve helping students to:

Develop a certain level of comprehensive language competence and the ability to use language for real communication

Master certain basic language knowledge

Master listening, speaking, reading and writing skills

 

However, at another level the curriculum should also serve students all-round development, providing them with opportunities to:

Strengthen their interest in studying English

Grow in self-discipline, perseverance and self-confidence

Improve their cooperative, investigative and thinking abilities

Develop their memory, imagination and creativity  

Adopt good study habits and effective learning strategies

Develop as autonomous and lifelong learners

Build moral integrity and a healthy outlook on life

Establish both national spirit and an awareness of and respect for cultural differences

Broaden their horizons and enrich their life experience

Take part in cultural life

Develop as individuals

2. Basic Principles of the New Curriculum

 The curriculum promotes quality education (as opposed to exam-orientated education) and the all-round development of the students

To promote quality education particular attention must be paid to:

Valuing each student’s feelings

Stimulating students interest in studying English

Helping students gain a sense of achievement and self-confidence

The curriculum must go beyond developing students comprehensive language competence to include areas such as:

Improving students ability to contribute to cultural and social life

Developing students practical abilities

Fostering students creativity

 The curriculum objectives are holistic and flexible.

The fundamental aim of the new English curriculum is to develop students comprehensive language competence. This aim is broken down into five general objectives. These objectives are then divided into nine ability levels with descriptors provided for each level. The five general objectives are:

1. Language Skills

2. Language Knowledge

3. Attitudes to Learning

4. Learning Strategies

5. Cultural Awareness

This design allows students to progress systematically through each level whilst meeting the full range of the curriculum’s demands.

 Students are put at the centre of the curriculum and individual differences are respected

Students must be at the heart of the new curriculum. For example, their developmental needs must be the central consideration when developing:

Curriculum objectives

The teaching and learning process

The assessment process

Teaching and learning resources

When implementing the curriculum each student must be allowed to develop individually under the guidance of the teacher:

 

 The curriculum promotes activity-based methods, experiential and participatory learning

The curriculum promotes task-based learning whereby, under the guidance of the teacher, the students gain a sense of achievement by reaching the goals of the task. Task completion will involve the following types of learning:

Sensory

Experiential

Hands on/practical

Participatory

Cooperative

In order to improve their ability to use language for real communication, students should also be able to:

Adjust their learning strategies and control their emotions

Form positive attitudes towards learning

 The curriculum recognizes the important role of formative assessment in promoting student development

The assessment system should combine formative with summative assessment. The purposes of assessment should be to:

Promote students comprehensive language competence

Encourage and motivate students

Help students become more autonomous learners

Benefit students healthy personal development

Give teachers useful feedback from which to develop teaching and learning

Inform the ongoing development and perfection of the English curriculum

Formative assessment should be an important part of the English teaching and learning process with a particular emphasis on:

Encouraging students active participation in learning

Improving students self-confidence

Summative assessment should focus on:

Testing students integrated language skills

Testing students ability to use language

 The curriculum expands the range of learning resources and opportunities available

The curriculum should strive to use and develop resources whose content is:

Realistic

Close to the students lives

Contemporary

Healthy

Rich and varied

Active use should be made of:

Audio visual material

Print media

The Internet

Students should be encouraged to take responsibility for finding, using and developing learning resources themselves.

3. The Curriculum Design

The curriculum follows the international practice of dividing the general objectives into different ability levels. When designing these nine levels consideration was given to the following:

The nature of language development

The different needs of different age groups

The needs of different ethnic groups and areas

The economic imbalances that exist in China

The aim is to have designed a system that is holistic and flexible.

The correspondence between the level system and the grade system is shown in the following diagram:

 

Primary School

Work towards:

Notes

Grade 3

Level 1

Students should start studying English in Grade 3

Grade 4

Level 1


Grade 5

Level 2


Grade 6

Level 2

The required standard for the end of primary school

 

Junior Middle School

Work towards:

Notes

Grade 7 (= Junior 1)

Level 3


Grade 8 (= Junior 2)

Level 4


Grade 9 (= Junior 3)

Level 5

The required standard for the end of junior middle school

 

Senior Middle School

Work towards:

Notes

Senior 1

Level 6


Senior 2

Level 7


Senior 3

Level 8

The required standard for senior middle school graduation


Level 9

An extension level for specialist schools and able students

Diagram 1: The Levels and the Grades

Part 2: Introduction to The General Objectives

The fundamental aim of the new curriculum is to develop students comprehensive language competence. This comprehensive language competence is achieved through the five general objectives as shown in the following diagram:

 

 


 

Diagram 2: The General Objectives

A further diagram illustrates the more comprehensive nature of the new curriculum compared to the old one:


 

Diagram 3: Comparison of the Old and New Curriculums

Language skills and knowledge form the basis of comprehensive language competence

The students attitudes to learning strongly influence their learning and development

Successful learning strategies improve the effectiveness of students learning

Cultural awareness ensures students use language appropriately

The overall descriptors for comprehensive language competence (i.e. a combination of all five general objectives) for Levels 1 to 9 are presented below:

Level

Descriptors

1

Students are curious about English and enjoy listening to people speaking English. They can:

Play games, do actions and activities (e.g. colouring, joining lines) according to simple instructions from the teacher

Perform simple role plays

Sing simple English songs

Say simple rhymes and chants

Understand simple stories by with the aid of pictures

Communicate simple personal information

Express simple feelings and attitudes

Write letters and words

Take interest in foreign cultural customs met during learning English

2

Students show a sustained interest in and enjoyment of learning English. They can:

Use simple English greetings and exchange personal information and information about family and friends

Perform dialogues, songs, rhymes and chants about content they have studied

Understand and narrate simple stories with the aid of pictures

Write simple sentences with the aid of pictures or prompts

Participate and cooperate actively and happily

Take the initiative to ask for help

Enjoy learning about other countries cultures and customs

3

Students show a positive attitude and the beginnings of self-confidence towards learning English. They can:  

Understand short and simple stories about familiar topics that they hear

Exchange information about familiar topics (e.g. school, family life) with the teacher or classmates

Read and understand short stories and other simple written material

Write simple sentences with the aid of examples or pictures

Take part in simple role plays and activities

Attempt to use suitable learning strategies to overcome difficulties encountered during study

Identify cultural differences that are present when communicating in a foreign language

4

Students can identify their own learning needs and targets and are fairly self-confident about learning English. They can:

Listen to and understand dialogues and short stories in everyday communication

Communicate information and simple opinions about familiar everyday topics

Write brief and simple letters

Attempt to use different educational resources

Gain information from oral and written materials to extend their knowledge, solve simple problems and describe results

Help each other to overcome difficulties encountered during learning

Plan and arrange sensible learning activities

Actively explore learning strategies suitable for themselves

Take note of cultural differences between China and other countries during study and communication

5

Students show clear motivation and a positive, active attitude towards learning English. They can:

Listen to and understand the teachers statements about familiar topics and take part in discussions

Exchange information with others and express opinions about various topics in daily life

Read and understand texts, newspapers and magazines suitable for Grades 7  9, overcoming the barrier of unknown words to understand the main ideas  

Use appropriate reading strategies according to the purpose of reading

Draft and edit short compositions according with the aid of prompts

Cooperate with others to complete tasks, solve problems and report results

Assess their own learning and summarize their own learning style

Make use of a wide variety of resources

Further increase their understanding and awareness of cultural differences

6

Students show further motivation to study English and a growing awareness of autonomous learning. They can:

Understand the viewpoints expressed in oral or written materials and state their own view

Effectively use oral or written language to describe personal experience

Plan, organize and carry out a variety of English learning activities with the teachers assistance

Take the initiative to exploit a range of learning resources and gain information through multiple channels

Adjust their own learning objectives and strategies according to the results of self-assessment

Understand the cultural background to and connotations of language during communication

7

Students show clear and sustained motivation to study English and a clear awareness of autonomous learning. They can:

Exchange information, ask questions, give opinions and advice about a fairly wide range of topics

Read and understand original texts and newspapers that have been adapted for senior middle school students

Show nascent skill in writing compositions such as notices and letters of information

Take the initiative to plan, organize and carry out a range of language practice activities

Take responsibility for using a wide variety of learning resources to promote study

Monitor their own learning to continue to form learning strategies suitable for themselves

Understand cultural differences in communication and further form wide cultural awareness

8

Students show strong self-confidence and ability to learn autonomously. They can:

Communicate fairly naturally with other English speakers about familiar topics

Express evaluative comments about the content of oral or written materials

Write coherent and fully structured short compositions

Take responsibility for planning, organizing and carrying out a range of language practice activities such as discussion, decision making, and reporting experiment and survey results

Use the internet and various other resources to gather and process information effectively

Consciously evaluate learning outcomes and form effective English learning strategies

Understand the cultural connotations and background during communication and adopt a respectful and tolerant attitude towards cultures of different countries

9

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